Cytokines for mouse neuronal cell culture. Neural Stem Cells (NSC) are self-renewing cells, of the neural lineage, capable of generating neurons (GABA, dopamine and motor neurons), astrocytes and oligodenrocytes. NSCs are marked by expression of Nestin and can be derived from fetal neural stem cells, adult neural stem cells, embryonic stem cells and adult somatic cells. NSCs are typically expanded and maintained in 2D monolayers or 3D neurosphere cultures containing recombinant EGF and FGF-basic (also called FGF-2 or FGFb). To differentiate NSCs to more specific cell types, the EGF and FGF-basic containing media is often replaced with media containing various cocktails of BDNF, SHH, FGF-8, CNTF, LIF, BMP-4, NT-3, NT-4, PDGFs and other cytokines. Recombinant mouse EGF and FGF-basic show cross-species reactivity so they are sometimes used in human and/or rat cultures.